History of Ulster County, New York
Extracted from Gazetteer of the State of New York, J. H. French, 1860
by Virginia R. Byron, UCGS Volunteer
Proofread by Susan Boice Wick, UCGS Volunteer
Re-formatted by H. Wm. Mountcastle (in progress, 2007)
[Bracketed numbers link to footnotes]
Note: This book was digitized by Google Book Search™ service in 2005 and is available for online viewing. The section on Ulster County can be found on pages 660-669.
This county was formed Nov. 1, 1683
,and included the country between the Hudson and the Delaware, bounded
north and S
by due E. and W. lines passing through the mouths of Sawyers and
Murderers Creeks. A part of Delaware was taken off in 1797, a part of
Greene in 1800, and Sullivan in 1809. A portion was annexed to Orange
in 1798, and the town of Catskill was annexed from Albany co.
the same year. It lies on the W. bank of the Hudson, centrally distant
68 mi. from Albany, and contains 1,204 sq. mi. Its surface is mostly a
hilly and mountainous upland. The Catskill Mts. occupy the northwest
and the Shawangunk Mts. extend northeast from the southwest corner
the co. The mountain region consists of irregular ridges and isolated
peaks with rocky sides and
summits too steep and rough for cultivation. The summits are 1,500 to
2,000 ft. above the Hudson. The remaining parts of the co. are
generally broken and hilly. Esopus Creek flows in a tortuous course
through the north part and discharges its waters into the Hudson. It
receives Platte Kil from the north Rondout Creek enters the southwest
the co. and flows northeast along the W. declivity of the Shawangunk
and enters the Hudson at Rondout. It receives as tributaries Sandburgh
Creek in the southwest part of the co., and Wall Kil near its mouth.
latter stream flows
along the E. foot of the Shawangunk Mts. The remaining streams are
small brooks and creeks.
The rocks of the co. are composed of the Portage and Chemung shales, in the E. part, and the Shawangunk grit or Oneida conglomerate, in the W. part. Drift deposits are found in nearly every part. Lead ore is found to some extent among the Shawangunk Mts..
At an early period the Esopus grit was largely quarried and manufactured into millstones.3 Water-limestone of an excellent quality is found and largely quarried.4 The Ulster co. Cement has an excellent reputation throughout the United States, and is used in immense quantities on fortifications and other Government works requiring solidity. It was used on Croton, Brooklyn, Cochituate, Albany, Washington, and other water-works. It finds a ready market in every port on the seaboard from New Brunswick to Texas. It has been exported to California and South America, and is largely used in and around New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, upon public and private buildings. The cement rocks are quarried usually on the hillsides, and these openings often extend in galleries under the overlying rock. The rock outcrops in a belt running northeast and southwest, first appearing on the Hudson a few miles north of Kingston Point, and extending 20 to 25 mi. to the town of Rochester, but is lost from view at the surface in several places between these points. In the section occupied by the Portage group of rocks are found extensive outcrops of thin bedded sandstone, yielding a find quality of flagging, which is largely quarried and exported.5 The soil is generally a good quality of sandy and gravelly loam, in some places intermixed with clay. Most of the valleys are covered with a deep, rich alluvium.
Most of the land is best adapted to
grazing. Dairying is extensively pursued, and spring grain is raised to
some extent. Fruit growing is becoming an important branch of business.
Manufactures of sole leather and lumber, are located in the western
and water-lime in the eastern. The commerce, carried on by
means of the river and canal, is large, and is constantly increasing.
The co. seat is located at Kingston.7 The courthouse is a fine stone edifice, situated upon Wall St.8 The jail is a stone building in rear of the courthouse. It is well arranged and furnished and is kept in good order.9 The clerk's office is in a fireproof one story building on the corner of Fair and Main Sts.10 The poorhouse is located upon a farm of 140 acres, on the S. line of New Paltz, 16 mi. southwest of Kingston. It is poorly constructed, not ventilated at all, and is entirely unfit for the purposes for which it is used. The average number of inmates is 175, supported at a weekly cost of $1.25 each. A school is taught 6 months in the year.11 The farm yields a revenue of $500. The Delaware & Hudson Canal is the only important work of internal improvement in the co. It extends from Rondout, on the Hudson, up Rondout and Sandburgh Creeks, through Kingston, Rosendale, Marbletown, Rochester, and Wawarsing. It opens a direct communication between the coal mines of Penn. and the Hudson. The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. was incorp. April 23, 1823, and the canal was finished in 1828.12
One daily and 7 weekly newspapers are now
published in the co.13
The Dutch established a trading post upon
the present site of Rondout in 1614, and probably a few Dutch families
settled in the immediate vicinity soon after. This early settlement was
broken up by Indian hostilities, and a new one was commenced between
1630 and '40. This was again attacked by the Indians, and in 1655 was
abandoned. Before 1660, settlers had again located at Kingston and
vicinity. In 1660 a treaty had been concluded with the Indians; and the
people were so unsuspicious of danger that they left open the gates to
their fort both day and night. In June, 1663, the Indians came into the
fort at Wiltwyck in great numbers, apparently to trade, while the
greater part of the people were engaged in their usual avocations out
of doors. At a given signal the Indians commenced the work of
destruction. Recovering from their first panic, the whites rallied,
under the leadership of Thomas Chambers, and finally drove the Indians
out of the fort; 18 whites were killed, and 42 were carried away
prisoners. The out settlements were all destroyed. A destructive war
ensued, in which the Ulster Indians were nearly exterminated. During
this war the valley of the Wall Kil was discovered, and soon after the
peace of 1663 it was occupied by a colony of French Huguenots.14 The
settlements gradually extended along the valleys of Esopus, Rondout,
and Wall Kil Creeks and their tributaries. Besides the manorial grant
of Fox Hall,15
the English made township grants of Kingston, New Paltz,
Marbletown, Rochester, Hurley, Shawangunk, and Marlborough. During the
Revolution the frontier settlements were exposed to Indian hostilities,
and before the close of the war were all destroyed or abandoned. The
river towns were taken by the British in 1777, and most of them were
pillaged and burned. The Provincial Congress and State Legislature held
several sessions at Kingston during the war and soon after. The people
were nearly all ardent patriots; and there were probably fewer tories
in this co. than in any other section of the State. Since the
Revolution the co. has steadily progressed in wealth and population.
The completion of the Delaware & Hudson Canal was a marked era
in the history of the industry of the co.; and the commencement of the
cement manufacture and stone quarrying have greatly added to its
— was formed from Shandaken, March 6, 1849. A part of
Hardenburgh was taken off in 1859. It lies in the northwest
part of the co., upon the border of Sullivan. Its surface is a broken
and mountainous upland. A spur of the Catskill Mts. extends through the
town, with a mean elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 ft. Its streams are head
branches of Rondout Creek and Neversink River. The valleys are narrow
ravines bordered by steep and rocky hillsides. The soil upon the
uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a sandy loam. The
settlements are chiefly confined to the valleys. Denning
is a p.o. near the center. Dewittsville
is a hamlet near the s. line. This town, though large, has the least
population of any town in the co. Its chief wealth consists in its
heavy growth of hemlock and hard wood. Settlements were made at a
comparatively recent period.17
— was formed from "Kingston", April 5,
1811. A part was set off to Kingston, and a part of Hurley was annexed,
in 1818, and a part of New Paltz was annexed April 12, 1842. It lies
upon the Hudson, and is the central town upon the E.
border of the co. Its surface is rolling in the E.
and moderately hilly in the w. A range of hills extends north and s. through near the center
the town, the highest peak being 1,632 ft. above tide. Hussey Hill, s.
of Rondout, is 1,000 ft. high. Wall Kil forms the w. and N. boundaries, and Swarte Kil and
Black Creek flow through the s. part.18
The soil is a light, clay loam. Fruit growing is becoming
an important branch of business. Cement is largely manufactured, and an
extensive commerce is carried on by means of the river and Delaware
& Hudson Canal.19
Port Ewen, (p.v.,) upon the
Hudson, s. of the mouth of Rondout Creek, is a village built up by the
Penn. Coal Co. A large part of the coal brought forward by the canal is
here shipped upon barges for the Northern market. Pop. 1,300.20 Arnoldton,
(p.v.,) upon Rondout Creek, in the s. part of the town, contains a
church, wollen factory, cotton factory, and 150 inhabitants. South
Rondout, upon Rondout Creek, in the north
part, contains an extensive cement and lime factory, a lager beer
brewery, a brickyard, several boatyards, and 568 inhabitants. Dashville,
upon Rondout Creek, in the s. part, contains a cement factory and 20
houses. Sleightsburg, upon the Hudson, at
the mouth of Rondout Creek, contains an extensive shipyard and 40
houses. Ellmores Cove, (Esopus p.o.,)
upon the Hudson, contains a church and 40 houses. Amesville
(p.o.) and Atkarton are hamlets. Freeville,
in the north part, contains a
gristmill and 20 houses. Settlements were made by the Dutch, soon after
their first occupation of the co.21
The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) of which there is any
record was formed in 1751; Rev. G. W. Mancius was the first preacher.22
GARDINER23 — was formed from Rochester, New Paltz, and Shawangunk, April 2, 1853. It is an interior town, lying S. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling in the E. and hilly in the center and w. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the w. border.24 The Wall Kil flows northeast through near the center and receives Shawangunk Kil from the southwest The soil is principally a gravelly loam, with clay and alluvium along the streams. Lumber and leather are manufactured to some extent. Tuthilltown, (Tuthill p.o.,) upon Shawangunk Kil, near its mouth, contains 20 dwellings.25 Libertyville, (p.o.,) on the north line, and Jenkinstown are hamlets. The first settlement was made at an early period, by a colony of French Huguenots. The first church was formed in 1833; Rev. Wm. Brush was the first preacher.
HARDENBERGH26 — was formed from Denning and Shandaken, April 15, 1859. It lies in the extreme W. corner of the co. Its surface is a broken and mountainous upland, the highest summits being 2,000 ft. above tide. It occupies a portion of the watershed between the Hudson and Delaware. Beaver Kil, Mill Brook, and Dry Brook take their rise in the town. Dry Brook (West Shandaken p.o.) is a hamlet.
HURLEY27 — was granted by patent Oct. 19, 1708.28 A part of the Hardenburgh Patent was released by Margaret Livingston, and was annexed March 3, 1789; and a part of New Paltz was taken off in 1809, a part of Esopus in 1818, a part of Olive in 1823, a part of Rosendale in 1844, and a part of Woodstock in 1853. It is an interior town, lying northeast of the center of the co. The surface is a rolling and moderately hilly upland, the highest summits being about 700 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows northeast through the S. part. Along its course are extensive fertile flats. The soil is a sandy loam, a considerable portion lying north of the creek being unfit for cultivation. Stone quarrying is extensively carried on.29 Hurley, (p.v.,) on Esopus Creek, contains a church and 160 inhabitants;30 and West Hurley, (p.v.,) in the north part, 2 churches and 25 dwellings. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, about 1680.31 This town became the refuge of the inhabitants of Kingston when the latter place was taken by the British in 1777. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1800; Rev. Thos. G. Smith was the first pastor.32
KINGSTON — was incorp. by patent May 19, 1667, and was recognized as a town May 1, 1702.33 Fox Hall Patent was annexed March 12, 1787.34 Esopus and Saugerties were taken off in 1811; a part of Esopus was annexed in 1818, and a part was annexed to Saugerties in 1832. It lies upon the Hudson north of the center of the co. Its surface is broken and hilly, the highest summit being Kuykuyt or Lookout Mt., about 600 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows northeast through near the center, receiving Saw Kil from the W. as tributary. Rondout Creek forms the S. boundary. The soil is principally a clayey loam. A large business in coal, ice, and stone is carried on by the canal and river. Kingston, (p.v.,) upon Rondout Creek, 2 mi. W. of the Hudson, was incorp. April 6, 1805. Besides the co. buildings, it contains 8 churches, the Kingston Academy, several private seminaries,35 3 banks, 1 savings bank, 4 newspaper offices, and several small manufactories.36 It is the center of an extensive trade upon the river and canal.37 Pop. 3,971. Rondout,38 (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Rondout Creek, was incorp. April 4, 1849. It contains 8 churches, a bank, and newspaper office. The people are principally engaged in the coal trade; and a large number of steamers, barges, and sailing vessels are constantly engaged in freighting coal, stone, and cement from this place.39 The Newark Lime and Cement Manufacturing Co. manufacture a larger amount of waterlime and cement annually than is produced at any similar establishment in the country. Pop. 5,978. Eddyville, upon Rondout Creek, 2½ mi. from its mouth, contains a cement factory40 and about 50 dwellings. It is the north terminus of the D. & H. Canal. Wilbur, (p.v.,) on the Rondout, below Eddyville, contains about 100 houses. It is the center of an immense trade in flagging stones.41 Fly Mountain is a p.o. Dutch Settlement is a hamlet in the north part. Flatbush contains a cement factory.42 The Dutch built a trading and military post here as early as 1614; but every thing was swept away in the wars of 1644-45. Another settlement was commenced in 1652, and abandoned in 1655. The first permanent settlers came in soon after, but suffered much from Indian hostilities for several years.43 Feb. 19, 1777, the first State Convention adjourned from Fishkill to Kingston. On the 9th of September following, the State Legislature convened here, but dispersed upon the approach of a British force under Sir Henry Clinton on the 7th of Oct. At that time the public records were hastily removed to the back settlements, and the place was burned.44 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed May 30, 1658. There are 18 churches in town.45
LLOYD — was formed from New Paltz, April 15, 1845. It lies upon the Hudson, s. of the center of the co. Its surface is mostly a rolling and hilly upland, terminating in a bluff upon the river; and the average height of the surface above tide is about 200 ft. Swarte Kil flows north along its W. boundary and Black Brook north through the center. The soil is generally a clay and gravelly loam. The bluffs along the river are principally occupied by find country seats. New Paltz Landing, (p.v.,) upon the river, contains 2 churches and 50 houses;46 Centerville (Lloyd p.o.) a church and 17 houses. Lewisburgh is a hamlet on the river, s. of New Paltz landing. Riverside is a p.o. in the northeast part. The date of first settlement in this town is quite ancient; but most of the details of the first years are lost. It was originally named "Paltz". The first church (M.E.) was formed in 1787. There are 3 churches in town; 2 M.E. and Presb.
MARBLETOWN — was formed by patent June 25, 1703.47 It was first recognized as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Olive was taken off in 1823, and a part of Rosendale in 1844. It is near the geographical center of the co. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by the valleys of the streams. Stone Ridge, near the center, the highest summit, is about 400 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows through the north part, and Rondout Creek through the southeast corner. The soil is chiefly a clay and sandy loam. A quarry of Shawangunk grit has been opened, and a sulphur spring has been found near the line of Rosendale. Stone Ridge, (p.v.,) southeast of the center, contains 2 churches and 80 houses; Kripplebush, (p.v.,) in the S. part, a church and 12 houses. High Falls48 is a hamlet upon the canal. Marbletown is a p.o. Bruceville (High Falls p.o.) is a small canal village on the line of Rosendale, in the southeast corner. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1738.49
MARLBOROUGH — was formed as a precinct, from Newburgh Precinct, March 12, 1772, and as a town, March 7, 1788. Plattekill was taken off in 1800. It lies upon the Hudson, in the southeast corner of the co. Its surface is broken and hilly. Marlborough Mt., a rocky ridge along the W. border, is about 1,000 ft. above the river. The streams are principally small brooks flowing directly into the Hudson. The soil is a slaty loam. Milton, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, in the north part, contains 3 churches and about 75 dwellings. Marlborough,50 (p.v.,) in the S. part, contains 2 churches, several manufactories,51 and about 50 dwellings. Lattingtown is a hamlet. The date and statistics of the early settlement have not been ascertained. The first church (Presb.) was formed Jan. 1, 1764.52
NEW PALTZ53 — was granted by patent by Gov. Andros, Sept. 29, 1677.54 Its bounds were enlarged April 1, 1775, and a part of Hurley was annexed Feb. 2, 1809. A part of Esopus was taken off in 1842, a part of Rosendale in 1844, Lloyd in 1845, and a part of Gardiner in 1853. It is an interior town, lying southeast of the center of the co. Its surface is mostly a hilly upland. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the w. border. Paltz Point, the highest summit is 700 ft. above tide. Wall Kil flows northeast through near the center; it is bordered by wide, fertile flats. The soil is generally a fine quality of sandy loam. Hay is one of the principal products and exports. New Paltz, (p.v.,) upon the Wall Kil, near the center, contains the New Paltz Academy, 2 churches and 45 dwellings. Butterville, Ohioville, and Springtown are hamlets. The first settlements were made by a colony of French Huguenots, a few years before the date of the patent.55 The oldest church record is in French, and bears date of 1683. There are 3 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D., M.E., and Friends.
OLIVE — was formed from Shandaken, Marbletown, and Hurley, April 15, 1823. A part was annexed to Woodstock, and a part of Woodstock was annexed, in 1853. It is an interior town, lying a little northwest of the center of the co. The surface is mountainous in the north and W. and hilly in the s. and E.56 A considerable portion of the mountainous region is too rough for profitable cultivation. Esopus Creek flows southeast through the town, a little north of the center. The soil is a sandy, gravelly, and clayey loam. Lumbering and tanning57 are largely carried on. Shokan,58 (p.v.,) upon the creed, north of the center, contains 2 churches and 20 houses; Samsonville,59 (p.v.,) on the s. line, a church, tannery, and 30 houses; Olive, (p.v.,) in the northeast corner, a church and 25 houses; and Olive City, (Olive Bridge p.o.,) on the creek, near the center, a tannery and 20 houses. The first settlements were made in the Esopus Valley, in 1740.60 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed at Shokan, in 1800.61
PLATTEKILL62 — was formed from Marlborough, March 21, 1800. A part of Shawangunk was annexed April 3, 1846, but was restored March 28, 1848. It lies upon the s. border of the co., near the southeast corner. Its surface is broken by a series of ridges of an average elevation of 300 ft. above the valleys. Its streams are small brooks and creeks. The soil is a fine quality of sandy and gravelly loam. Plattekill, (p.v.,) near the s. line, contains a church and 25 dwellings; Clintondale, (p.v.,) in the north part, on the line of Lloyd, a church and 20 dwellings; Flint, (New Hurley p.o.,) in the southwest corner, on the line of Shawangunk, a church and 15 dwellings, and Modena, (p.v.,) near the northwest corner, 16 dwellings. The first settlements were made about the commencement of the last century. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1770; Rev. Stephen Goetschius was the first pastor.63
ROCHESTER64 — was incorp. by patent June 25, 1703,65 and organized as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Middletown (Delaware co.) was taken off in 1789, Neversink (Sullivan co.) in 1798, Wawarsing in 1806, and a part of Gardiner in 1853. A part of Wawarsing was annexed March 21, 1823. It is an interior town, lying a little southwest of the center of the co. Ranges of mountains extend along the E. and w. borders, and a rolling upland occupies the central portions. Rondout Creek flows northeast through the s. part, and receives as tributaries Sander Kil, Peters Kil, and several other streams. Vernooy Creek flows s. through the w. part. The soil upon the uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a sandy loam mixed with clay. The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valley of Rondout Creek. Esopus millstones are largely quarried in this town. An extensive cave near Kyserike has been explored about half a mile. Alligerville and Port Jackson are small villages upon the canal. Accord and Kyserike are p. offices. The first settlements were made about 1700, by the Dutch.66 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed soon after the first settlement. There are now 2 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D. and M.E.
ROSENDALE — was formed from Marbletown, New Paltz, and Hurley, April 26, 1844. It is an interior town, lying E. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling and broken upland, the highest summits being 200 to 500 ft. above the valleys. Rondout Creek flows northeast through near the center, and receives Koxing Kil from the s. and Kottle Kil from the north The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valley of the Rondout. The soil is principally a sandy loam. The manufacturer of cement has become one of the most important branches of business.67 There is an extensive paper mill in town. Rosendale, (p.v.,) upon the creek and canal, contains 2 churches and 450 inhavitants; Lawrenceville, 1 mi. w., 40 houses; Bruceville, (High Falls p.o.,) upon the line of Marbletown, about 30 houses. Green Locks, a canal village, on the E. border, and Whiteport, in the north part, each contain about 20 houses. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, about 1700.68 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1797; Rev. Thos. G. Smith was the first preacher.69
SAUGERTIES70 — was formed from Kingston, April 5, 1811. An error in the boundary was corrected June 8, 1812, and a part of Kingston was annexed April 2, 1832. It lies upon the Hudson, in the northeast corner of the co. The surface is rolling in the E. and hilly in the center and w. The hills upon the river and extending 2 mi. back are underlaid by limestone, from which quicklime and cement are manufactured. Farther w. are quarries of fine flagging stone. Platte Kil flows through the town in a tortuous course and forms the principal drainage. Kaaters Kil flows along the N. border. The soil along the river is a clayey loam, and upon the uplands a sandy and gravelly loam. Quarring is extensively carried on.71 Saugerties, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Esopus Kil, was incorp. April 26, 1831, as "Ulster". Its name was changed April 10, 1855. It contains the Saugerties Academy, 7 churches, a newspaper office, and several extensive manufactories. Pop. 3,334. Malden, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, 2 mi. north of Saugerties, is the seat of an extensive stone trade. Pop. 350. Glasco, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, 3 mi. s. of Saugerties, is the seat of an extensive brick manufactory and stone trade. Pop. about 300. West Camp, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, in the north part, contains a church and 15 houses. Quarryville, (p.v.,) in the north part, and Unionville, near the center, each contain about 300 inhabitants, who are mostly engaged in getting out stone from the neighboring quarries. Glenearie, upon the s. line, Van Akens Mills, near the center, and Ashbury, are small villages. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, at an early period; but the largest immigration was that of the German Palatinates,72 a colony of whom located at West Camp in 1710. The first church (Luth.) was organized at West Camp, in 1711. There are now 15 churches in town.73
SHANDAKEN74 — was formed from Woodstock, April 9, 1804. A part was annexed from Neversink (Sullivan co.) in 1809. A part of Olive was taken off in 1823, Denning in 1849, and a part of Hardenburgh in 1859. It is the northwest corner town of the co. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, broken by deep ravines. The declivities are steep and rocky, and a large share of the surface is too rough for profitable cultivation. The town is not inhabited except along the valleys, the mountain region being left to wild beasts and hunters. The soil in the valleys is a clay and sandy loam. The principal branches of business pursued are lumbering, shingle making, and tanning. Shandaken,75 (p.v.,) in the north part, contains a church, a large tannery, a sawmill, gristmill, and 20 houses; Pine Hill, (p.v.,) in the northwest part, a sawmill, gristmill, tannery, and 15 houses. Ladews Corners, (The Corner p.o.,) in the extreme E. angle of the town; Phoenicia, (p.o.,) in the northeast corner; and Woodland, (p.o.,) southeast of the center, are hamlets. At each of these places, and at several other points in town, are extensive tanneries.76 The first settlements were made before the Revolution.77 There are 2 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D. and M.E.
SHAWANGUNK78 — was formed as a precinct Dec. 17, 1743, and as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Gardiner was taken off in 1853, a part was annexed to Plattekill in 1846 and restored in 1848. It is the central town upon the s. border of the co. The surface is a hilly and broken upland. The Shawangunk Mts., extending along the w. border, are about 2,000 ft. above tide. The Shawangunk River forms about ½ of the s. boundary, and flows northeast through near the center, receiving Dwaars Kil79 from the w. Wall Kil flows northeast through the E. part, receiving Muddy Kil from the E. and Dwaars Kill from the w. The soil is generally a gravelly loam. Shawangunk, (p.v.,) in the southeast part, contains a gristmill, sawmill, spoke factory, and 20 houses; Ulsterville, (p.o.,) in the southwest part, 10 houses; and Galeville Mills, (p.o.,) on Wall Kil, a church, sawmill, gristmill, and 10 houses. Dwaars Kil, near the center, is a p.o. Bruynswick, (p.o.,) on the north line, contains a church and 10 houses; Jamesburgh, (p.v.,) near the extreme w. angle, a church and 12 houses. New Hurley (p.o.) is a hamlet, on the line of Plattekill. The first settlements were made along the valley of Shawangunk River, by the Dutch, between 1680 and 1700.80 New Fort is a locality where two Indian battles were fought in 1663. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed Oct. 10, 1753; Rev. V. Vrooman was the first pastor.81
WAWARSING82 — was formed from Rochester, March 14, 1806. A part was re-annexed to Rochester in 1823. It is the southwest corner town in the co. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, broken by several deep valleys. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the E. border; and spurs of the Catskills occupy the central and w. parts. The highest peaks are 2,000 to 3,000 ft. above tide. The mountainous portions in the E. and northwestcorners are rocky and precipitous and too rough for cultivation. The southwest portion is a hilly upland. Rondout Creek flows in a deep valley from the w. border southeast to near the center; thence it turns at nearly right angles and flows northeast to the E. border. It receives from the s. Sandburgh Creek, a stream which drains the w. declivities of the Shawangunk Mts., Beer Creek, and the outlet of Cape Pond, which flows through near the center and empties into Sandburgh Creek. The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valleys of Rondout and Sandburgh Creeks, at the w. foot of the Shawangunk Mts. The soil in the valleys is principally a sandy loam. Lumber,83 leather, glass, earthenware, iron, and axes are extensively manufactured in different parts of the town. Ellenville, (p.v.,) upon Sandburgh Creek, at the mouth of Beer Kil, was incorp. in Sept. 1858. It is an important canal village, and contains several churches, a high school,84 newspaper office, and an extensive glass factory.85 Pop. 1,700. Napanock, (p.v.,) upon the Rondout, above its junction with the Sandburgh, contains several churches and manufactories,86 and a population of about 700. Homowack, (p.v.,) a canal village, upon the line of Sullivan co., contains a church, glass factory, woolen factory, and 20 houses. Kerhonkson, (p.v.,) a canal village, on the line of Rochester, contains a church and 30 houses. Lackawack, (p.v.,) upon the Rondout, in the w. part, contains a church, an extensive tannery, and about 20 houses. Greenfield, (p.v.,) in the southwest part, contains 2 churches, a gristmill, sawmill, tannery, and about 25 houses. Wawarsing, (p.v.,) in the northeast, contains a gristmill, sawmill, tannery, and about 25 houses. Port Benjamin, a canal village, s. of Wawarsing, contains about 25 houses. Port Nixon, a village upon Rondout Creek and the canal, in the northeast part, contains a church and about 25 houses. The first settlements were made about the commencement of the last century, principally by the Dutch.87 During the Revolution the inhabitants were killed, captured, or driven off by the tories and Indians.88 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1745; Rev. J. Fryenmoet was the first preacher.89
WOODSTOCK — was formed April 11, 1787, from the settlements of Great and Little Shandaken, which had been attached to Hurley. A part of Middletown (Delaware co.) was taken off in 1789, Windham (Greene co.) in 1798, and Shandaken in 1804. A part of Olive was taken off, and parts of Olive and Hurley were annexed, Nov. 25, 1853. It lies upon the north border of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, too rough for profitable cultivation. Several fine valleys extend through the town, separating the upland into several distinct ridges and peaks. Overlook Mt., in the northeast corner, is 3,500 ft. above tide. Near its summit is Shues Lake, a beautiful sheet of clear water. The scenery in this vicinity is among the finest in Eastern N.Y. Saw Kil and Beaver Kil are the principal streams. The soil is a clay and slaty loam upon the uplands and a gravelly loam in the valleys. Woodstock, (p.v.,) in the southeast part, contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 20 houses; Bearsville, (p.o.,) 2 mi. w. of Woodstock, is a hamlet; Lake Hill is a p.o., near the center. The first settlements were made just before the commencement of the Revolution.90 The first church (Luth.) was formed in 1806.91