Ulster County Genealogical Society

History of Ulster County, New York

Extracted from Gazetteer of the State of New York, J. H. French, 1860

Typed by Virginia R. Byron, UCGS Volunteer
Proofread by Susan Boice Wick, UCGS Volunteer
Re-formatted by H. Wm. Mountcastle (in progress, 2007)
[Bracketed numbers link to footnotes]

Note: This book was digitized by Google Book Search™ service in 2005 and is available for online viewing. The section on Ulster County can be found on pages 660-669.


Ulster County

This county was formed Nov. 1, 1683 [1] ,and included the country between the Hudson and the Delaware, bounded north and S by due E. and W. lines passing through the mouths of Sawyers and Murderers Creeks. A part of Delaware was taken off in 1797, a part of Greene in 1800, and Sullivan in 1809. A portion was annexed to Orange in 1798, and the town of Catskill was annexed from Albany co. the same year. It lies on the W. bank of the Hudson, centrally distant 68 mi. from Albany, and contains 1,204 sq. mi. Its surface is mostly a hilly and mountainous upland. The Catskill Mts. occupy the northwest part; and the Shawangunk Mts. extend northeast from the southwest corner nearly through the co. The mountain region consists of irregular ridges and isolated peaks with rocky sides and summits too steep and rough for cultivation. The summits are 1,500 to 2,000 ft. above the Hudson. The remaining parts of the co. are generally broken and hilly. Esopus Creek flows in a tortuous course through the north part and discharges its waters into the Hudson. It receives Platte Kil from the north Rondout Creek enters the southwest corner of the co. and flows northeast along the W. declivity of the Shawangunk Mts. and enters the Hudson at Rondout. It receives as tributaries Sandburgh Creek in the southwest part of the co., and Wall Kil near its mouth. The latter stream flows along the E. foot of the Shawangunk Mts. The remaining streams are small brooks and creeks.

The rocks of the co. are composed of the Portage and Chemung shales, in the E. part, and the Shawangunk grit or Oneida conglomerate, in the W. part. Drift deposits are found in nearly every part. Lead ore is found to some extent among the Shawangunk Mts.[2].

At an early period the Esopus grit was largely quarried and manufactured into millstones.3  Water-limestone of an excellent quality is found and largely quarried.4  The Ulster co. Cement has an excellent reputation throughout the United States, and is used in immense quantities on fortifications and other Government works requiring solidity. It was used on Croton, Brooklyn, Cochituate, Albany, Washington, and other water-works. It finds a ready market in every port on the seaboard from New Brunswick to Texas. It has been exported to California and South America, and is largely used in and around New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, upon public and private buildings. The cement rocks are quarried usually on the hillsides, and these openings often extend in galleries under the overlying rock. The rock outcrops in a belt running northeast and southwest, first appearing on the Hudson a few miles north of Kingston Point, and extending 20 to 25 mi. to the town of Rochester, but is lost from view at the surface in several places between these points. In the section occupied by the Portage group of rocks are found extensive outcrops of thin bedded sandstone, yielding a find quality of flagging, which is largely quarried and exported.5  The soil is generally a good quality of sandy and gravelly loam, in some places intermixed with clay. Most of the valleys are covered with a deep, rich alluvium. 

Most of the land is best adapted to grazing. Dairying is extensively pursued, and spring grain is raised to some extent. Fruit growing is becoming an important branch of business. Manufactures of sole leather and lumber, are located in the western towns,6  and water-lime in the eastern. The commerce, carried on by means of the river and canal, is large, and is constantly increasing.  

The co. seat is located at Kingston.7  The courthouse is a fine stone edifice, situated upon Wall St.8  The jail is a stone building in rear of the courthouse. It is well arranged and furnished and is kept in good order.9  The clerk's office is in a fireproof one story building on the corner of Fair and Main Sts.10  The poorhouse is located upon a farm of 140 acres, on the S. line of New Paltz, 16 mi. southwest of Kingston. It is poorly constructed, not ventilated at all, and is entirely unfit for the purposes for which it is used. The average number of inmates is 175, supported at a weekly cost of $1.25 each. A school is taught 6 months in the year.11  The farm yields a revenue of $500. The Delaware & Hudson Canal is the only important work of internal improvement in the co. It extends from Rondout, on the Hudson, up Rondout and Sandburgh Creeks, through Kingston, Rosendale, Marbletown, Rochester, and Wawarsing. It opens a direct communication between the coal mines of Penn. and the Hudson. The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. was incorp. April 23, 1823, and the canal was finished in 1828.12

One daily and 7 weekly newspapers are now published in the co.13  

The Dutch established a trading post upon the present site of Rondout in 1614, and probably a few Dutch families settled in the immediate vicinity soon after. This early settlement was broken up by Indian hostilities, and a new one was commenced between 1630 and '40. This was again attacked by the Indians, and in 1655 was abandoned. Before 1660, settlers had again located at Kingston and vicinity. In 1660 a treaty had been concluded with the Indians; and the people were so unsuspicious of danger that they left open the gates to their fort both day and night. In June, 1663, the Indians came into the fort at Wiltwyck in great numbers, apparently to trade, while the greater part of the people were engaged in their usual avocations out of doors. At a given signal the Indians commenced the work of destruction. Recovering from their first panic, the whites rallied, under the leadership of Thomas Chambers, and finally drove the Indians out of the fort; 18 whites were killed, and 42 were carried away prisoners. The out settlements were all destroyed. A destructive war ensued, in which the Ulster Indians were nearly exterminated. During this war the valley of the Wall Kil was discovered, and soon after the peace of 1663 it was occupied by a colony of French Huguenots.14  The settlements gradually extended along the valleys of Esopus, Rondout, and Wall Kil Creeks and their tributaries. Besides the manorial grant of Fox Hall,15  the English made township grants of Kingston, New Paltz, Marbletown, Rochester, Hurley, Shawangunk, and Marlborough. During the Revolution the frontier settlements were exposed to Indian hostilities, and before the close of the war were all destroyed or abandoned. The river towns were taken by the British in 1777, and most of them were pillaged and burned. The Provincial Congress and State Legislature held several sessions at Kingston during the war and soon after. The people were nearly all ardent patriots; and there were probably fewer tories in this co. than in any other section of the State. Since the Revolution the co. has steadily progressed in wealth and population. The completion of the Delaware & Hudson Canal was a marked era in the history of the industry of the co.; and the commencement of the cement manufacture and stone quarrying have greatly added to its permanent prosperity.

DENNING16  — was formed from Shandaken, March 6, 1849. A part of Hardenburgh was taken off in 1859. It lies in the northwest part of the co., upon the border of Sullivan. Its surface is a broken and mountainous upland. A spur of the Catskill Mts. extends through the town, with a mean elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 ft. Its streams are head branches of Rondout Creek and Neversink River. The valleys are narrow ravines bordered by steep and rocky hillsides. The soil upon the uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a sandy loam. The settlements are chiefly confined to the valleys. Denning is a p.o. near the center. Dewittsville is a hamlet near the s. line. This town, though large, has the least population of any town in the co. Its chief wealth consists in its heavy growth of hemlock and hard wood. Settlements were made at a comparatively recent period.17  

ESOPUS — was formed from "Kingston", April 5, 1811. A part was set off to Kingston, and a part of Hurley was annexed, in 1818, and a part of New Paltz was annexed April 12, 1842. It lies upon the Hudson, and is the central town upon the E. border of the co. Its surface is rolling in the E. and moderately hilly in the w. A range of hills extends north and s. through near the center of the town, the highest peak being 1,632 ft. above tide. Hussey Hill, s. of Rondout, is 1,000 ft. high. Wall Kil forms the w. and N. boundaries, and Swarte Kil and Black Creek flow through the s. part.18  The soil is a light, clay loam. Fruit growing is becoming an important branch of business. Cement is largely manufactured, and an extensive commerce is carried on by means of the river and Delaware & Hudson Canal.19  Port Ewen, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, s. of the mouth of Rondout Creek, is a village built up by the Penn. Coal Co. A large part of the coal brought forward by the canal is here shipped upon barges for the Northern market. Pop. 1,300.20  Arnoldton, (p.v.,) upon Rondout Creek, in the s. part of the town, contains a church, wollen factory, cotton factory, and 150 inhabitants. South Rondout, upon Rondout Creek, in the north part, contains an extensive cement and lime factory, a lager beer brewery, a brickyard, several boatyards, and 568 inhabitants. Dashville, upon Rondout Creek, in the s. part, contains a cement factory and 20 houses. Sleightsburg, upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Rondout Creek, contains an extensive shipyard and 40 houses. Ellmores Cove, (Esopus p.o.,) upon the Hudson, contains a church and 40 houses. Amesville (p.o.) and Atkarton are hamlets. Freeville, in the north part, contains a gristmill and 20 houses. Settlements were made by the Dutch, soon after their first occupation of the co.21  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) of which there is any record was formed in 1751; Rev. G. W. Mancius was the first preacher.22  

GARDINER23  — was formed from Rochester, New Paltz, and Shawangunk, April 2, 1853. It is an interior town, lying S. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling in the E. and hilly in the center and w. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the w. border.24  The Wall Kil flows northeast through near the center and receives Shawangunk Kil from the southwest The soil is principally a gravelly loam, with clay and alluvium along the streams. Lumber and leather are manufactured to some extent. Tuthilltown, (Tuthill p.o.,) upon Shawangunk Kil, near its mouth, contains 20 dwellings.25  Libertyville, (p.o.,) on the north line, and Jenkinstown are hamlets. The first settlement was made at an early period, by a colony of French Huguenots. The first church was formed in 1833; Rev. Wm. Brush was the first preacher.

HARDENBERGH26  — was formed from Denning and Shandaken, April 15, 1859. It lies in the extreme W. corner of the co. Its surface is a broken and mountainous upland, the highest summits being 2,000 ft. above tide. It occupies a portion of the watershed between the Hudson and Delaware. Beaver Kil, Mill Brook, and Dry Brook take their rise in the town. Dry Brook (West Shandaken p.o.) is a hamlet. 

HURLEY27  — was granted by patent Oct. 19, 1708.28  A part of the Hardenburgh Patent was released by Margaret Livingston, and was annexed March 3, 1789; and a part of New Paltz was taken off in 1809, a part of Esopus in 1818, a part of Olive in 1823, a part of Rosendale in 1844, and a part of Woodstock in 1853. It is an interior town, lying northeast of the center of the co. The surface is a rolling and moderately hilly upland, the highest summits being about 700 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows northeast through the S. part. Along its course are extensive fertile flats. The soil is a sandy loam, a considerable portion lying north of the creek being unfit for cultivation. Stone quarrying is extensively carried on.29  Hurley, (p.v.,) on Esopus Creek, contains a church and 160 inhabitants;30  and West Hurley, (p.v.,) in the north part, 2 churches and 25 dwellings. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, about 1680.31  This town became the refuge of the inhabitants of Kingston when the latter place was taken by the British in 1777. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1800; Rev. Thos. G. Smith was the first pastor.32 

KINGSTON — was incorp. by patent May 19, 1667, and was recognized as a town May 1, 1702.33  Fox Hall Patent was annexed March 12, 1787.34  Esopus and Saugerties were taken off in 1811; a part of Esopus was annexed in 1818, and a part was annexed to Saugerties in 1832. It lies upon the Hudson north of the center of the co. Its surface is broken and hilly, the highest summit being Kuykuyt or Lookout Mt., about 600 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows northeast through near the center, receiving Saw Kil from the W. as tributary. Rondout Creek forms the S. boundary. The soil is principally a clayey loam. A large business in coal, ice, and stone is carried on by the canal and river. Kingston, (p.v.,) upon Rondout Creek, 2 mi. W. of the Hudson, was incorp. April 6, 1805. Besides the co. buildings, it contains 8 churches, the Kingston Academy, several private seminaries,35  3 banks, 1 savings bank, 4 newspaper offices, and several small manufactories.36  It is the center of an extensive trade upon the river and canal.37  Pop. 3,971. Rondout,38  (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Rondout Creek, was incorp. April 4, 1849. It contains 8 churches, a bank, and newspaper office. The people are principally engaged in the coal trade; and a large number of steamers, barges, and sailing vessels are constantly engaged in freighting coal, stone, and cement from this place.39  The Newark Lime and Cement Manufacturing Co. manufacture a larger amount of waterlime and cement annually than is produced at any similar establishment in the country. Pop. 5,978. Eddyville, upon Rondout Creek, 2½ mi. from its mouth, contains a cement factory40  and about 50 dwellings. It is the north terminus of the D. & H. Canal. Wilbur, (p.v.,) on the Rondout, below Eddyville, contains about 100 houses. It is the center of an immense trade in flagging stones.41  Fly Mountain is a p.o. Dutch Settlement is a hamlet in the north part. Flatbush contains a cement factory.42  The Dutch built a trading and military post here as early as 1614; but every thing was swept away in the wars of 1644-45. Another settlement was commenced in 1652, and abandoned in 1655. The first permanent settlers came in soon after, but suffered much from Indian hostilities for several years.43  Feb. 19, 1777, the first State Convention adjourned from Fishkill to Kingston. On the 9th of September following, the State Legislature convened here, but dispersed upon the approach of a British force under Sir Henry Clinton on the 7th of Oct. At that time the public records were hastily removed to the back settlements, and the place was burned.44  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed May 30, 1658. There are 18 churches in town.45 

LLOYD — was formed from New Paltz, April 15, 1845. It lies upon the Hudson, s. of the center of the co. Its surface is mostly a rolling and hilly upland, terminating in a bluff upon the river; and the average height of the surface above tide is about 200 ft. Swarte Kil flows north along its W. boundary and Black Brook north through the center. The soil is generally a clay and gravelly loam. The bluffs along the river are principally occupied by find country seats. New Paltz Landing, (p.v.,) upon the river, contains 2 churches and 50 houses;46  Centerville (Lloyd p.o.) a church and 17 houses. Lewisburgh is a hamlet on the river, s. of New Paltz landing. Riverside is a p.o. in the northeast part. The date of first settlement in this town is quite ancient; but most of the details of the first years are lost. It was originally named "Paltz". The first church (M.E.) was formed in 1787. There are 3 churches in town; 2 M.E. and Presb. 

MARBLETOWN — was formed by patent June 25, 1703.47  It was first recognized as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Olive was taken off in 1823, and a part of Rosendale in 1844. It is near the geographical center of the co. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by the valleys of the streams. Stone Ridge, near the center, the highest summit, is about 400 ft. above tide. Esopus Creek flows through the north part, and Rondout Creek through the southeast corner. The soil is chiefly a clay and sandy loam. A quarry of Shawangunk grit has been opened, and a sulphur spring has been found near the line of Rosendale. Stone Ridge, (p.v.,) southeast of the center, contains 2 churches and 80 houses; Kripplebush, (p.v.,) in the S. part, a church and 12 houses. High Falls48  is a hamlet upon the canal. Marbletown is a p.o. Bruceville (High Falls p.o.) is a small canal village on the line of Rosendale, in the southeast corner. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1738.49 

 MARLBOROUGH — was formed as a precinct, from Newburgh Precinct, March 12, 1772, and as a town, March 7, 1788. Plattekill was taken off in 1800. It lies upon the Hudson, in the southeast corner of the co. Its surface is broken and hilly. Marlborough Mt., a rocky ridge along the W. border, is about 1,000 ft. above the river. The streams are principally small brooks flowing directly into the Hudson. The soil is a slaty loam. Milton, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, in the north part, contains 3 churches and about 75 dwellings. Marlborough,50  (p.v.,) in the S. part, contains 2 churches, several manufactories,51  and about 50 dwellings. Lattingtown is a hamlet. The date and statistics of the early settlement have not been ascertained. The first church (Presb.) was formed Jan. 1, 1764.52 

 NEW PALTZ53  — was granted by patent by Gov. Andros, Sept. 29, 1677.54  Its bounds were enlarged April 1, 1775, and a part of Hurley was annexed Feb. 2, 1809. A part of Esopus was taken off in 1842, a part of Rosendale in 1844, Lloyd in 1845, and a part of Gardiner in 1853. It is an interior town, lying southeast of the center of the co. Its surface is mostly a hilly upland. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the w. border. Paltz Point, the highest summit is 700 ft. above tide. Wall Kil flows northeast through near the center; it is bordered by wide, fertile flats. The soil is generally a fine quality of sandy loam. Hay is one of the principal products and exports. New Paltz, (p.v.,) upon the Wall Kil, near the center, contains the New Paltz Academy, 2 churches and 45 dwellings. Butterville, Ohioville, and Springtown are hamlets. The first settlements were made by a colony of French Huguenots, a few years before the date of the patent.55  The oldest church record is in French, and bears date of 1683. There are 3 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D., M.E., and Friends.

 OLIVE — was formed from Shandaken, Marbletown, and Hurley, April 15, 1823. A part was annexed to Woodstock, and a part of Woodstock was annexed, in 1853. It is an interior town, lying a little northwest of the center of the co. The surface is mountainous in the north and W. and hilly in the s. and E.56  A considerable portion of the mountainous region is too rough for profitable cultivation. Esopus Creek flows southeast through the town, a little north of the center. The soil is a sandy, gravelly, and clayey loam. Lumbering and tanning57  are largely carried on. Shokan,58  (p.v.,) upon the creed, north of the center, contains 2 churches and 20 houses; Samsonville,59  (p.v.,) on the s. line, a church, tannery, and 30 houses; Olive, (p.v.,) in the northeast corner, a church and 25 houses; and Olive City, (Olive Bridge p.o.,) on the creek, near the center, a tannery and 20 houses. The first settlements were made in the Esopus Valley, in 1740.60  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed at Shokan, in 1800.61 

 PLATTEKILL62  — was formed from Marlborough, March 21, 1800. A part of Shawangunk was annexed April 3, 1846, but was restored March 28, 1848. It lies upon the s. border of the co., near the southeast corner. Its surface is broken by a series of ridges of an average elevation of 300 ft. above the valleys. Its streams are small brooks and creeks. The soil is a fine quality of sandy and gravelly loam. Plattekill, (p.v.,) near the s. line, contains a church and 25 dwellings; Clintondale, (p.v.,) in the north part, on the line of Lloyd, a church and 20 dwellings; Flint, (New Hurley p.o.,) in the southwest corner, on the line of Shawangunk, a church and 15 dwellings, and Modena, (p.v.,) near the northwest corner, 16 dwellings. The first settlements were made about the commencement of the last century. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1770; Rev. Stephen Goetschius was the first pastor.63 

ROCHESTER64  — was incorp. by patent June 25, 1703,65  and organized as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Middletown (Delaware co.) was taken off in 1789, Neversink (Sullivan co.) in 1798, Wawarsing in 1806, and a part of Gardiner in 1853. A part of Wawarsing was annexed March 21, 1823. It is an interior town, lying a little southwest of the center of the co. Ranges of mountains extend along the E. and w. borders, and a rolling upland occupies the central portions. Rondout Creek flows northeast through the s. part, and receives as tributaries Sander Kil, Peters Kil, and several other streams. Vernooy Creek flows s. through the w. part. The soil upon the uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a sandy loam mixed with clay. The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valley of Rondout Creek. Esopus millstones are largely quarried in this town. An extensive cave near Kyserike has been explored about half a mile. Alligerville and Port Jackson are small villages upon the canal. Accord and Kyserike are p. offices. The first settlements were made about 1700, by the Dutch.66  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed soon after the first settlement. There are now 2 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D. and M.E.

ROSENDALE — was formed from Marbletown, New Paltz, and Hurley, April 26, 1844. It is an interior town, lying E. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling and broken upland, the highest summits being 200 to 500 ft. above the valleys. Rondout Creek flows northeast through near the center, and receives Koxing Kil from the s. and Kottle Kil from the north The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valley of the Rondout. The soil is principally a sandy loam. The manufacturer of cement has become one of the most important branches of business.67  There is an extensive paper mill in town. Rosendale, (p.v.,) upon the creek and canal, contains 2 churches and 450 inhavitants; Lawrenceville, 1 mi. w., 40 houses; Bruceville, (High Falls p.o.,) upon the line of Marbletown, about 30 houses. Green Locks, a canal village, on the E. border, and Whiteport, in the north part, each contain about 20 houses. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, about 1700.68  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1797; Rev. Thos. G. Smith was the first preacher.69 

SAUGERTIES70  — was formed from Kingston, April 5, 1811. An error in the boundary was corrected June 8, 1812, and a part of Kingston was annexed April 2, 1832. It lies upon the Hudson, in the northeast corner of the co. The surface is rolling in the E. and hilly in the center and w. The hills upon the river and extending 2 mi. back are underlaid by limestone, from which quicklime and cement are manufactured. Farther w. are quarries of fine flagging stone. Platte Kil flows through the town in a tortuous course and forms the principal drainage. Kaaters Kil flows along the N. border. The soil along the river is a clayey loam, and upon the uplands a sandy and gravelly loam. Quarring is extensively carried on.71  Saugerties, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Esopus Kil, was incorp. April 26, 1831, as "Ulster". Its name was changed April 10, 1855. It contains the Saugerties Academy, 7 churches, a newspaper office, and several extensive manufactories. Pop. 3,334. Malden, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, 2 mi. north of Saugerties, is the seat of an extensive stone trade. Pop. 350. Glasco, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, 3 mi. s. of Saugerties, is the seat of an extensive brick manufactory and stone trade. Pop. about 300. West Camp, (p.v.,) upon the Hudson, in the north part, contains a church and 15 houses. Quarryville, (p.v.,) in the north part, and Unionville, near the center, each contain about 300 inhabitants, who are mostly engaged in getting out stone from the neighboring quarries. Glenearie, upon the s. line, Van Akens Mills, near the center, and Ashbury, are small villages. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, at an early period; but the largest immigration was that of the German Palatinates,72  a colony of whom located at West Camp in 1710. The first church (Luth.) was organized at West Camp, in 1711. There are now 15 churches in town.73 

SHANDAKEN74  — was formed from Woodstock, April 9, 1804. A part was annexed from Neversink (Sullivan co.) in 1809. A part of Olive was taken off in 1823, Denning in 1849, and a part of Hardenburgh in 1859. It is the northwest corner town of the co. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, broken by deep ravines. The declivities are steep and rocky, and a large share of the surface is too rough for profitable cultivation. The town is not inhabited except along the valleys, the mountain region being left to wild beasts and hunters. The soil in the valleys is a clay and sandy loam. The principal branches of business pursued are lumbering, shingle making, and tanning. Shandaken,75  (p.v.,) in the north part, contains a church, a large tannery, a sawmill, gristmill, and 20 houses; Pine Hill, (p.v.,) in the northwest part, a sawmill, gristmill, tannery, and 15 houses. Ladews Corners, (The Corner p.o.,) in the extreme E. angle of the town; Phoenicia, (p.o.,) in the northeast corner; and Woodland, (p.o.,) southeast of the center, are hamlets. At each of these places, and at several other points in town, are extensive tanneries.76  The first settlements were made before the Revolution.77  There are 2 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D. and M.E.

SHAWANGUNK78  — was formed as a precinct Dec. 17, 1743, and as a town March 7, 1788. A part of Gardiner was taken off in 1853, a part was annexed to Plattekill in 1846 and restored in 1848. It is the central town upon the s. border of the co. The surface is a hilly and broken upland. The Shawangunk Mts., extending along the w. border, are about 2,000 ft. above tide. The Shawangunk River forms about ½ of the s. boundary, and flows northeast through near the center, receiving Dwaars Kil79  from the w. Wall Kil flows northeast through the E. part, receiving Muddy Kil from the E. and Dwaars Kill from the w. The soil is generally a gravelly loam. Shawangunk, (p.v.,) in the southeast part, contains a gristmill, sawmill, spoke factory, and 20 houses; Ulsterville, (p.o.,) in the southwest part, 10 houses; and Galeville Mills, (p.o.,) on Wall Kil, a church, sawmill, gristmill, and 10 houses. Dwaars Kil, near the center, is a p.o. Bruynswick, (p.o.,) on the north line, contains a church and 10 houses; Jamesburgh, (p.v.,) near the extreme w. angle, a church and 12 houses. New Hurley (p.o.) is a hamlet, on the line of Plattekill. The first settlements were made along the valley of Shawangunk River, by the Dutch, between 1680 and 1700.80  New Fort is a locality where two Indian battles were fought in 1663. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed Oct. 10, 1753; Rev. V. Vrooman was the first pastor.81 

WAWARSING82  — was formed from Rochester, March 14, 1806. A part was re-annexed to Rochester in 1823. It is the southwest corner town in the co. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, broken by several deep valleys. The Shawangunk Mts. extend along the E. border; and spurs of the Catskills occupy the central and w. parts. The highest peaks are 2,000 to 3,000 ft. above tide. The mountainous portions in the E. and northwestcorners are rocky and precipitous and too rough for cultivation. The southwest portion is a hilly upland. Rondout Creek flows in a deep valley from the w. border southeast to near the center; thence it turns at nearly right angles and flows northeast to the E. border. It receives from the s. Sandburgh Creek, a stream which drains the w. declivities of the Shawangunk Mts., Beer Creek, and the outlet of Cape Pond, which flows through near the center and empties into Sandburgh Creek. The Delaware & Hudson Canal extends along the valleys of Rondout and Sandburgh Creeks, at the w. foot of the Shawangunk Mts. The soil in the valleys is principally a sandy loam. Lumber,83  leather, glass, earthenware, iron, and axes are extensively manufactured in different parts of the town. Ellenville, (p.v.,) upon Sandburgh Creek, at the mouth of Beer Kil, was incorp. in Sept. 1858. It is an important canal village, and contains several churches, a high school,84  newspaper office, and an extensive glass factory.85  Pop. 1,700. Napanock, (p.v.,) upon the Rondout, above its junction with the Sandburgh, contains several churches and manufactories,86  and a population of about 700. Homowack, (p.v.,) a canal village, upon the line of Sullivan co., contains a church, glass factory, woolen factory, and 20 houses. Kerhonkson, (p.v.,) a canal village, on the line of Rochester, contains a church and 30 houses. Lackawack, (p.v.,) upon the Rondout, in the w. part, contains a church, an extensive tannery, and about 20 houses. Greenfield, (p.v.,) in the southwest part, contains 2 churches, a gristmill, sawmill, tannery, and about 25 houses. Wawarsing, (p.v.,) in the northeast, contains a gristmill, sawmill, tannery, and about 25 houses. Port Benjamin, a canal village, s. of Wawarsing, contains about 25 houses. Port Nixon, a village upon Rondout Creek and the canal, in the northeast part, contains a church and about 25 houses. The first settlements were made about the commencement of the last century, principally by the Dutch.87  During the Revolution the inhabitants were killed, captured, or driven off by the tories and Indians.88  The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1745; Rev. J. Fryenmoet was the first preacher.89 

WOODSTOCK — was formed April 11, 1787, from the settlements of Great and Little Shandaken, which had been attached to Hurley. A part of Middletown (Delaware co.) was taken off in 1789, Windham (Greene co.) in 1798, and Shandaken in 1804. A part of Olive was taken off, and parts of Olive and Hurley were annexed, Nov. 25, 1853. It lies upon the north border of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is mostly a mountainous upland, too rough for profitable cultivation. Several fine valleys extend through the town, separating the upland into several distinct ridges and peaks. Overlook Mt., in the northeast corner, is 3,500 ft. above tide. Near its summit is Shues Lake, a beautiful sheet of clear water. The scenery in this vicinity is among the finest in Eastern N.Y. Saw Kil and Beaver Kil are the principal streams. The soil is a clay and slaty loam upon the uplands and a gravelly loam in the valleys. Woodstock, (p.v.,) in the southeast part, contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 20 houses; Bearsville, (p.o.,) 2 mi. w. of Woodstock, is a hamlet; Lake Hill is a p.o., near the center. The first settlements were made just before the commencement of the Revolution.90  The first church (Luth.) was formed in 1806.91 


FOOTNOTES
  1. In its charter it is said to "contain the towns of Kingston, Hurley, and Marbletown, Foxhall, and the New Paltz, and all villages, neighborhoods, and Christian habitations on the w. side of the Hudson's River, from the Murderers Creek, near the Highlands, to the Sawyers Creek". It was named from the Irish title of the Duke of York. The boundary of this and Albany cos. were not fully settled at the Revolution. An act was passed in 1774, but nothing was done under it toward a settlement, and it was repealed in 1788. An act was also passed in 1774 to run and mark the boundary of this and Orange counties from E. of the Shawangunk Mts. to the Delaware.
  2. A mine was opened near Ellenville more than 40 years ago. It was never worked to profit, and is now abandoned. The Ulster Mine, near Sullivan co. line, was opened in 1837. It is 600 or 700 feet above the valley. The galena in these mines in associated with blende, iron and copper pyrites, calcite, and quartz. There are indications and vague traditions that these mines were worked at a much earlier period and yielded profits beyond computation.
  3. In Smith's History, written in 1732, this co. is said to be noted for fine flour, beer, and a good breed of draft horses. The millstones — then quarried about 10 mi. from the river — had acquired celebrity, and were said to far exceed those from Colen, in Europe, formerly imported at £80 the pair, while Esopus stones did not cost a fourth part of that sum. Small millstones for family use are still made for the Southern market; but the business has lost much of its former importance. A finer quality of these grits, when calcined and crushed, furnishes the silex used in the glass manufacture at Ellenville.
  4. Water-limestone was accidentally discovered on the line of the Erie Canal, by Canvass White, an engineer, in 1818. In 1820 he obtained a patent, and subsequently obtained judgment against one or more of the contractors for using it. The first waterlime or cement made in Ulster co. was about the time the Delaware & Hudson Canal was commenced. Its manufacture has now become a leading and profitable pursuit, employing about $1,000,000 of capital and 1,000 men. In March, 1858, there were 15 establishments in the co., owned by individuals and companies.
  5. The stone is of a bluish gray color and slaty texture, and may be split into slabs of almost any manageable size and from 1 to 4 inches in thickness. The rock is traversed by joints or seams, that divide very smoothly and greatly facilitate the labor of quarrying. It is brought down to the river and shipped in immense quantities at every landing in the co. and transported to New York and other places along the coast. The business employs a large number of hands.
  6. The principal tanneries are in Shandaken, Olive, Woodstock, Denning, Hardenburgh, and Wawarsing.
  7. A courthouse and jail were built soon after the incorp. of the co., and an appropriation was made for their repair July 21, 1715. These buildings proving inadequate, an act of General Assembly, passed Oct. 14, 1732, allowed the old buildings and lot to be sold and new buildings to be erected. Repairs were authorized in 1745, 1750, 1765, and 1773; and in 1775 a further sum was granted to complete them. The courthouse and jail were burned by the British Oct. 16, 1777, and a lottery was granted 6 months after to raise £2,000 to rebuild them. By act of March 19, 1778, the sheriff's mileage was directed to be computed from the house of Mrs. Ann Dubois, an innkeeper in New Paltz.
  8. The first county officers under State government were Levi Pauling, First Judge; Egbert Dumond, Sheriff; and Joseph Gasherie, Surrogate.
  9. The Senate Committee in 1857 report this jail as one of the best in the State; but, as 15 or 20 prisoners escaped in the winter of 1858 and '59 the correctness of the committee's conclusions may well be questioned.
  10. Dutchess and Ulster cos. were incorp. at the same time, and were united for about 30 years. The records of Dutchess co. for that period are found in the Ulster co. clerk's office.
  11. The Senate Committee of 1857 report that they found 12 cells for lunatics in an old, dilapidated building so open that it was scarcely possible to keep the inmates from perishing.
  12. See page 63. The Canal Company owns a R.R. over the mountain from Honesdale to Carbondale, Penn., and the coal mines at the latter place. It formerly owned most of the boats on the canal, and leased them to boatmen. About 1850 the Penn. Coal Company made an arrangement, by which upon payment of toll they were allowed to transport coal in their own boats from Hawley to Port Ewen.
  13. After the peace of 1660 the Director General of New Netherlands shipped 11 Indians prisoners to Curacoa to be sold as slaves. This outrage led to the attack made in 1663, and the bloody war that followed. Nine days after the retreat of the Indians from the attack upon Wiltwyck, in June, 1663, a reinforcement of 40 men, under Ensign Myssen, arrived, and relieved the fort. Capt. Krygier, with a cannon and a force of 210 men, pursued the Indians to their forts and destroyed their grain. In Sept. another expedition surprised an Indian fort, 36 mi. southwest of Wiltwyck, killed the chief and 20 others, and restored 22 captives. The Indians were effectually broken and scattered, and late in the fall they sued for peace and restored all the remaining prisoners except 3.
  14. Thomas Chambers, the original proprietor of this patent, endeavored by will to entail it in his family; but it passed to strangers before the Revolution.
  15. Named in honor of Wm. H. Denning, former proprietor of a large part of the town.
  16. The first sawmill was built in 1827, and the first tannery in 1850, at Dewittsville, by De Witt & Reynolds.
  17. "Sopus," as known by the Dutch, included both Kingston and the country s. of the Rondout. Their descendants still designate Kingston as "Sopus," and the corporate town above named as "Klein Sopus," or Little Sopus. The word is of Indian origin. The Esopus Indians — who lived in this region when first known to the whites — were of the Algonquin stock, and were allied to the Mohegan and the other river tribes.
  18. Along the bluffs that overlook the Hudson are several fine country residences. Two lighthouses are built in the river opposite this town.
  19. Named from John Ewen, President of the Penn. Coal Company. The village was laid out in 1851; nearly all of the inhabitants are more or less interested in the coal trade.
  20. Johannes Louw was born in 1681; Baltus Terpening and Tryntje Van Vliet were married in 1682. These, so far as is known, were the first birth and marriage in town. Wm. Hinman taught a school, at the Hook, in 1763. A mill was built on Black Creek prior to 1800. A cotton factory was built at Dashville in 1828, and the one now at Arnoldton in 1830; the former is standing idle.
  21. There are 6 churches in town; 3 Ref. Prot. D., M.E., Prot. E., and Friends.
  22. Named in honor of Addison Gardiner, formerly Lieut. Gov.
  23. "The Traps" is a deep pass or gully, 650 ft. wide, extending through these mountains.
  24. A woolen factory was built at this place at an early period.
  25. Named in honor of Johannes Hardenburgh, the patentee of an immense tract in this and adjoining cos. This town has been formed since the statistics for this work were obtained. 
  26. Named from Geo. Lovelace's family, who were Barons Hurley in Ireland.—Benson's Memoir, p. 49. In early times it was called "Hurley Common."
  27. The patentees of this tract were Cornelius Kool, Adrien Garretsie, Matthew Ten Eyck, Jacobus Du Bois, Johannes Schepmoes, Roeloff Swartwout, Cornelius Lammerse, Peter Petersies, Lawrence Osterhout, and Jannetie Newkirk. The successors of the original trustees afterward bought 300 acres for the benefit of the corporation. An act of April 4, 1806, appointed John A. De Witt, Levi Johnston, and a third person, to be named by the freholders, to sell these lands and make a partition among the owners.
  28. The stone obtained from these quarries is used for building and flagging. The business gives employment to several hundred men.
  29. Some of the buildings at this place are nearly 200 years old. A wire suspension bridge 160 ft. long here crosses the Esopus.
  30. Among the early settlers were families named Crispell, Du Bois, Cole, Newkirk, Schepmoes, Ten Eyck, Wynkoop, Elmendorf, Roosa, Constable, Louw, Delamater, and others, — mostly from Holland and Belgium. In 1719 the following persons held the office of trustees of the corporation: — Cornelius Kool, Adrien Garretsie, Jacob Du Bois, Barnabas Swartwout, Jacob Rutse, Nicolaes Roosa, and Charles Wyle. The first inn of which there is definite knowledge was kept about 1760, by Charles De Witt, at Hurley Village. Two gristmills were erected soon after the first settlement.
  31. There are 3 churches in town; 2 Ref. Prot. D., and M.E.
  32. Called by the Indians "Atkankarten," — said to signify smooth land. It was more commonly called Esopus, from a tribe of Indians that inhabited it. Gov. Stuyvesant granted it a charter, May 16, 1661, under the name of Wiltwyck, (Indian Town,) and relieved it from dependence upon Fort Orange. Its affairs were to be managed by a sheriff and 3 schepens. Roeloff Swartwout was appointed first sheriff, and Evert Pels, Cornelius Barentsen Sleight, and Elbert Heymans Roose, the first schepens. Appeals from their decisions might be made to the Director General and Council in New Netherlands. The sheriff and commissioners were to hold a court every fortnight, except in harvest time, unless occasion or necessity might otherwise require. All criminal cases were to be referred directly to the Director General and Council, except the lesser crimes, — as quarrels, injuries, scolding, kicking, beating, threatenings, simply drawing a knife or sword, without assult or bloodshed, — which might be prosecuted in the lower court.
  33. Fox Hall Patent was issued to Thomas Chambers, May 21, 1667, with manorial privileges. Chambers first settled on the tract now occupied by Troy, as a tenant under Van Rensselaer. He removed in 1652 to Esopus, acquired a large estate by trade, and rendered efficient service in the war against the Indians. He died in 1698. The district still bears the name of "Fox Hall."
  34. The Golden Hill Seminary and the Brookside Female Seminary, two private boarding schools, are located at this place.
  35. The Newark Lime and Cement Manufacturing Co., organized in 1848, has 2 manufactories at Newark, N. J., and one at Rondout, N. Y., producing in the aggregate 750,000 barrels annually.
  36. The principal trade is that of stone, obtained from the neighboring quarries.
  37. Formerly named "The Strand" and "Kingston Landing." When the canal was located, it was named "Bolton," from the then president of the canal company; but its present name was adopted soon after. It is the Dutch name for redout. It was, at an early period of its growth, a maze of crooked lanes, bordered by rude shanties and inhabited by a floating population of Irish laborers. The village still contains a large proportion of Irish, and has a large and increasing number of German inhabitants. Its appearance has much improved within a few years.
  38. About 20 steamers are engaged in the freighting business of this place. Lines of steamers also run regularly to Albany, New York, and intermediate places. A steam ferry connects the place with Rhinebeck, on the E. bank of the Hudson.
  39. The Lawrence Cement Co. manufacture 90,000 barrels of cement annually.
  40. The aggregate amount of this trade is more than $250,000 per annum.
  41. The Kingston and Rosendale Cement Co. manufacture 70,000 barrels of cement annually.
  42. The site of the first Dutch fort is said to be upon a plateau in the w. bounds of Rondout. The locality is still called by its Indian name, Ponkhockie, said to signify "Canoe Harbor." On the 7th of June, 1663, as most of the people were at work in the fields, the Indians made a sudden attack upon the fort, (which was carelessly left open,) killed 18, and carried away 42 as prisoners. Capt. Chambers rallied the men, drove out the Indians, and commenced a war in which the captives were mostly reclaimed and the Indians nearly exterminated. The first marriage on the church record was that of Jan Janse Timmermans and Catharine Mattyson, Oct. 3, 1660.
  43. The British force under Gen. Vaughan, consisting of 3,000 men, was sent up the river to co-operate with Burgoyne. For 10 days after passing the barriers at the Highlands they amused themselves by burning and plundering the places along the river. They took possession of Kingston Oct. 17, and, after plundering it several hours, they burned every house but one. The houses were mostly of stone, and the woodwork was easily replaced after the retreat of the British. Several of the early meetings of the Legislature were held at this place; and the first State Constitution was formed here.
  44. 2 Ref. Prot. D., 2 M. E., Bap., Prot. E., Presb., and Jewish, at Kingston; 2 M. E., Presb., Germ. Evang. Luth., R. C., Bap., Prot. E., Ref. Prot. D., and Jewish, at Rondout; and M. E. at Eddyville.
  45. A ferry connects this place with Poughkeepsie.
  46. This patent was granted to Col. Henry Beekman, Capt. Thos. Gaston, and Capt. Chas. Brodhead, in trust for the inhabitants. Trustees continued to be annually elected until 1808. The records of 1703 contain the names of the following petitioners for grants of land: — Mosys Du Puy, Thomas Vandemarke, Loondart Kool, Richard Wilson, Jeremy Kettell, jr., Gysbert Roosa, Wm. Nottingham, John Cock, sen., and Capt. Richard Brodhead.
  47. The cement works of Delafield & Baxter, at High Falls, employ about 50 men, and produce about 40,000 barrels annually. The falls on the Rondout are here about 50 feet high, affording a great amount of water-power.
  48. The census reports 5 churches in town; 3 Ref. Prot. D. and 2 M. E. Rev. Derick Romeyn and Rev. J. R. Hardenburgh (afterward Pres. of Rutgers College) were both pastors of the Ref. Prot. D. church at Stone Ridge.
  49. This place is situated at the head of a deep, rocky gorge opening down toward the Hudson.
  50. About 15,000 wheelbarrows and $40,000 worth of agricultural implements are manufactured annually.
  51. The census reports 9 churches in town; 2 Presb., 2 M. E., 2 Friends, Prot. E., Bap., and Christian.
  52. Pronounced New Pawltz, and named from Pfalz, the German name of the Palatinate.
  53. The patentees of this tract were Lewis Du Bois, Christian Deyo, Abraham Hasbroecq, Andries Le Fevre, Jean Brocq, Pierre Deyo, Lawrens Beverie, Anthony Crespel, Abraham Du Bois, Hugo Frere, Isaac Du Bois, and Simon Le Fevre.
  54. The valley of Wall Kil was discovered by one of the parties engaged in pursuing the destroyers of Wiltwyck, in the summer of 1663. The persecuted exiles from France, who first sought refuge in Germany, and thence emigrated to America, decided upon settling here. They bought the land of the Indians May 26, 1677, and soon after they settled in their new homes. In 1728, the owners of the patent intrusted its care to 12 trustees, known as "The Twelve Men." These trustees were elected annually until the organization of the town under the State Government. The Twelve Men in 1785 were Simon Du Bois, Jacobus Hasbrouck, Johannis Freer, Jacob Hasbrouck, jr., Abraham Donaldson, Abraham Eltinge, Petris Hasbrouck, Samuel Bevier, Benjamin Deyoe, Isaac Le Fever, Matthew Le Fever, and Abraham Ein. By act of March 31, 1785, the allotments made by the Twelve Men were confirmed. Their "Common Book" was to be retained by the Surveyor General until a convenient time, and then it was to be deposited with the co. clerk of Ulster co., to be forever preserved. Its records are deemed authentic evidence in court.
  55. The towns of Olive, Rochester, and Denning, corner on a hill which is about 2,700 feet above tide. Shokan Point is about 3,100 feet high; and the average elevation of the lowlands is 800 feet above tide.
  56. There are 4 extensive tanneries in town, one of which, owned by Pratt & Samson, is the largest oak tannery in the co. It produces 70,000 sides of sole leather annually.
  57. Pronounced Sho-kan.
  58. Named from Gen. Henry A. Samson.
  59. Geo. Middagh settled in 1740; Samuel Cox, in 1742; William Nottingham, in 1745, — all near Olive Bridge; John Crispell, in 1747, a little E. of Shokan; Hendrick Crispell, at Shokan, in 1760; John Coons, in 1775; and Thos. Bush, in 1755, s. of Olive City. The first inn was kept at Olive Bridge, by Conrad Du Bois; and the first store, sawmill, and gristmill, by Lemuel Winchell, at Winchells Falls. Two sons of Frederick Bush were carried off by the Indians in 1781. The early history of this town is blended with that of Marbletown.
  60. The census reports 4 churches in town; 2 Ref. Prot. D., Bap., and M. E.
  61. Pronounced Plaw-ta-kill, and signifies "Flat Brook."
  62. There are 7 churches in town; 3 M. E., Wes. Meth., Ref. Prot. D., Presb., and Friends.
  63. Named in honor of the Earl of Rochester. The Indian name is said to be Mom-bac-cus.
  64. The first trustees under the patent were Col. Henry Beekman, Joachim Schoonmaker, and Mosys Du Puy.
  65. In 1703 the following persons resided in town: — Van Gerritse Decker, Lodewyck Hornbeck, Leendart Kool, sr., Anthony Hornbeck, Wm. De La Montaigne, Teunis Oosterhout, Jan Cartwright, Gysbert Van Garde, Andries Davies, and David Du Bois. Teunis Oosterhout had a "corne mill" on Mombaccus Kil, in 1743.
  66. More than one-half of the cement made in the co. is manufactured in this town. The water-limestone quarries may be said to constitute the wealth of the town. The cement manufactories are as follows: 
  67. An inn was kept at the old "Rosendale Farm" in 1711.
  68. There are 5 churches in town; 2 Ref. Prot. D., Bap., Friends, and R. C.
  69. This name is said to be derived from the Dutch "Zagger," a sawyer, from a sawmill built by Robert Livingston on Saw Kill. Ebenezer Wooster first used the name in 1749, when surveying the bounds of the Hasrdenburgh Patent. In 1826, Henry Barclay, of N. Y., purchased the present site of the village, and the water-power. He built a dam and constructed a race which made a fall of 47 feet. He soon after built a rolling mill, paper mill, and cotton factory. The last named has since been changed to a white lead factory. The Ulster Iron Works employs 300 hands night and day, and manufactures 6,000 tons of bar and hoop iron annually. The paper mill employs 125 hands, and turns out 600 tons of paper annually. The White Lead Works employs 40 men, and manufactures 1,500 tons of paint annually. A steam mill for dressing stone turns out 1-1/2 tons daily. The village is also largely engaged in commerce. About 30 sail-vessels are employed in exporting stone and brick. A steam ferry plies between this place and Tivoli station on the Hudson River R. R., and daily steamer runs to New York.
  70. It is estimated that 2,000 persons are employed in quarrying, dressing, drawing, and shipping stone from this town. The varieties are chiefly flagging and curb stone; but cut stone for many uses is also sold. About half million of dollars' worth of stone is shipped annually from Saugerties, Malden, and Glasco.
  71. Stephen Myers and brothers settled at a place called "Churchland," just w. of Saugerties Village. Martin Snyder settled at the same place, and G. W. Dedrick at West Camp, Aaron Newirk and Felte Fiero in the same vicinity, — all in 1700, Dedrick Marrtesstock settled at "Kaatsban" in 1728. Peter Winne, Edward Woods, Myndert Mynderse, B. Barham, Jacobus Pearsen, Myndert Schutt, Godfrey Denolfen, and others, were early settlers. On the 18th of May, 1711, there were 14 Palatinates at "Elizabethtown," 111 at "Georgetown," and 321 at "New Village," in this town. The settlers afterward mostly removed to the valleys of the Schoharie and Mohawk.
  72. 4 Ref. Prot. D., 4 M. E., Germ. Meth., Bap., Cong., Prot. E., R. C., Luth., and Presb.
  73. Said to signify "Rapid Water."
  74. The road from Shandaken to Lexington is constructed through a pass 4 mi. long and in some places scarcely 500 feet wide, and abounding in picturesque scenery. It is through the watershed between Esopus and Schoharie Creeks.
  75. 200,000 sides of leather are annually manufactured in this town.
  76. John Longyear, Cornelius Furlough, Jacob Brink, Coonradt Wisner, and Frederick Markle, all settled before the war.  —— Witherspoon taught school at The Corner at an early period.
  77. Pronounced Shawn-gum, and said to mean "white rocks." The kil or creek receives this name from large white rocks at its junction with Wall Kil; and it was applied from the stream to the mountain and town. Another version is that it is named from the Shawan, a southern tribe, and gunk, a mountain, or, the mountain that extends toward the south.
  78. The Dutch applied the term Dwaar to streams that flowed sometimes in one direction and sometimes in another. This phenomenon is true of waters at the mouth only of the stream.
  79. Among the early settlers were Jacobus Bruyn, Cornelius Schoonmaker, Abram Schutt, Zachariah Hoffman, Benjamin Smedes, Jacob Decker, John Terwilliger, and Johannes Decker. Along Wall Kil, Robert Kain, Robert Graham, David Davis, Daniel Winfield, Hendrick Van Wegen, and James Penneck settled from 1710 to '30. A school was taught near Bruynswick p.o., between 1730 and '40. The first mill was probably at the junction of Wall and Dwaars Kils, 1 mi. below Shawangunk Village.
  80. There are 4 churches in town; 2 Ref. Prot. D. and 2 M. E.
  81. Usually abbreviated to "War-sink." It is an Indian word, and said to signify "black bird's nest."
  82. About 10,000,000 ft. of lumber are sent from this town annually.
  83. The Ellenville High School, established in 1853. It is a boarding and day school.
  84. The Ellenville Glass Co., incorp. in 1836, turns out more than $100,000 worth of demijohns, bottles, &c. annually. It employs 200 hands.
  85. The Napanock Ax Factory employs about 100 men, and manufactures 150,000 axes annually. The Napanock Iron Works employs 50 or 60 men, and manufactures pig and wrought iron and R. R. car axles.
  86. The first settlers were Abram Bevier, John Bevier, from New Paltz, in 1708. Egbert De Witt, Wm. Nottingham, and Adries De Witt. An inn was kept by Johannes Bevier before the Revolution. The first store at Wawarsing was kept by Abram Vernooy; the first gristmill was built by Cornelius Vernooy.
  87. On the 12th of Aug. 1781, a large party of tories and Indians, under one Caldwell, appeared in this town. They had formed the design of falling upon Napanock, but, being informed that that place was defended by a cannon, they came to Wawarsing before the inhabitants were up in the morning. At this place was a stone fort on the site of B. C. Hornbeck's house. Two men and a young woman discovered the enemy before they reached the fort, and the young woman succeeded in closing the door just in time to prevent it from being burst open by the savages. The latter, finding further attack dangerous, dispersed for burning and plundering the out settlements. Some 5 or 6 dwellings, 7 barns, and a gristmill were burned, and on the next day the enemy withdrew, laden with spoils. Several lives were lost on both sides, and much property was destroyed. — The Indians; or Narratives of Massacres and Depredations on the Frontiers of Wawarsink and Vicinity, p. 21.
  88. The census reports 11 churches in town; 4 M. E., 3 Ref. Prot. D., 2 R. C., Bap., and Friends.
  89. Philip Bonesteel, first innkeeper, settled in 1770; Edward Short, in 1776; Peter Short, in 1784; Jacobus Du Bois, Ephraim Van Keuren, Philip Shultis, and Henry Shultis, sen., in 1788; Jno. Hutchens, in 1790; Wm. Elting, in 1786; Mathew Keip, in 1787; and Jacob Montrose at an early day. Robert Livingston built the first sawmill, and J. Montrose the first gristmill. These settlements were much harassed by the Indians during the war.
  90. There are 6 churches in town; 3 M. E., Luth., Bap., and Friends.

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